THE HISTORY OF THE OUTPOST

This border outpost, along with several other ones situated on Estonia’s western islands, was part of the 11th (Kingiseppskiy) Border Detachment (military unit no. 2133) of the Red Banner Baltic Border District (in the years 1946–1953, 1954–1955 and 1960–1963 the detachment was subordinate to the Leningrad, 1956–1957 Western, and 1963–1975 Northwestern Border District) of the USSR Border Troops.

The site is located on the northern coast of the island of Saaremaa, in Liiküla village. The headquarters of the Detachment were situated in Kuressaare, formerly Kingissepp. The outpost had an ordinal number, code name, and letter designation, which changed depending on the total quantity of border outposts and their numeration. For instance, from 1976 to 1992 the base was the 6th border outpost of the 11th Border Detachment, had a code name “Bromisty” and designation military unit no. 2133-Т.

This particular site is a classic example of a Soviet border guard complex of the early post-World WarⅡ period.

In one way or another, it probably existed in Liiküla village already from the end of 1944, because points 185 and 186 of the list of the Attachment no. 2 to the Resolution no. 69 of the ESSR Council of Ministers of the year 1946 (a list of buildings and other structures to be transferred to the Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Leningrad Border District).

Stipulate: “Leisi parish, Liiküla village – living house 150 m2 and shed 60 m2” (former Hiiu Maa archive, Fond 121, Series 2s, File 1).

In this form, the outpost could have been situated in the same place as now, though most of the buildings seem to have been built in the 1950s and 1960s.

The first irrefutable evidence of the base being located in this particular place is the document sent on the 6th of March 1950 by the commander of the Leningrad Border District to the Military Department of the Council of Ministers of the ESSR, which described the land to be provided and allocated to the Directorate of the Leningrad Border Troops (pp. 3–4), according to which the main 5 ha large piece of land no. 59 in Liiküla village of the Leisi parish was used as a border outpost and approved by the executive committee of the Saaremaa district.

The first documentary evidence of the outpost situated in the current location. Here shown as a tract of land no. 59 on a 1:200 000 scale map, which was attached to the document sent on the 6th of March 1950 by the commander of the Leningrad Border District to the Military Department of Council of Ministers of the ESSR, which described the land to be provided and allocated to the Directorate of the Leningrad Border District (pp. 3–4). Source: the National Archives of Estonia (ERA.R-1.16.76, p. 241).

The rectangular gate post in front of the left entrance door of the sauna, which has a writing “1958” from the sauna’s side made of nails that have been hammered into it.

At the present moment, it is the earliest date found on the outpost’s territory.

Photo: Jüri Pärn, 2015.

A writing on the wall of the room for the expansion tank in the attic of the barracks reads “1959 год!” (“the year 1959!”).

It indicates the probable time of the construction of the old building of the main building in the 1950s.

Photo: spring 2021.

The restoration and opening of the Yevgeny Leonov Museum may take a very long time or not be realized at all without your support.

As far as the author knows, a separate Leonov museum does not yet exist …

According to the land transfer and acceptance certificate no. 1 of 12th November 1971, in compliance with the resolution no. 304-23 of the Council of Ministers of the ESSR and the decision of the executive committee of the district’s Soviet of Workers’ Deputies from 27th of June 1970 the land was transferred by the chairman of “Mustjala” collective farm, Paaskivi, to the head of the military unit’s 2133 rear services, Moskvin, for eternal use (“eternal” is written on the line describing land use).

After the collapse of the USSR, the 11th Border Detachment was relocated to Leningrad region. The withdrawal of the Detachment took place approximately from the middle of 1992 until the early spring of 1993. The detachment’s infrastructure (headquarters, border outposts, etc.) transferred to the newly established border troops of independent Estonia.

The land transfer and acceptance certificate no. 1 of 12th November 1971 in compliance with the resolution no. 304-23 of the ESSR Council of Ministers of the ESSR and the decision of the executive committee of the district’s Soviet of Workers’ Deputies from 23rd of June 1970 and a map of the border outpost from this document.

The boundaries of the outpost’s territory quite precisely match the present ones.

A copy of the certificate from personal archive.

The head of the 11th Border Detachment’s rear services lieutenant colonel Vladimir Kotov is participating in the transfer of the border to the newly established border troops of independent Estonia. Presumably 1992.

Source: http://pogran-zastava.ru

Since the border service was subordinate to the Estonian state, the local governments had to regularly confirm leaving border lands in the country’s keeping.

Estonia’s Ministry of the Interior sold the outpost to a private owner only at the end of 2007.

Decision of the Mustjala parish council from 16th of October 1992 about “the allocation to state ownership of the land from Tagaranna and Liiküla reqired by the Border Guard Board for maintenance of the buildings and structures necessary for border protection.”

The outpost’s location in Liiküla on a map attached to the document. This is the earliest evidence in the author’s possession of the outpost as a property of independent Estonia’s border service.

SERVING AT THE OUTPOST

At the times of the USSR, every outpost of the Detachment was assigned a certain section of the national border, which was 15–25 km in length on average.

This outpost was responsible for securing a strip from Pammana peninsula in the east to Panga Cliff in the west.

Methods of guarding the border included patrolling the coast, ploughing trace-control strips, visual observation from watchtowers, sweeping the shores with searchlights, monitoring land and sea by radars, etc.

The outpost’s observation posts, several searchlight positions, and a technical observation post (TOP) with a radar station were situated along the coastline.

A border guard at the top of the outpost’s watchtower from where visual observation of the border was performed.

Source: https://forum.pogranichnik.ru

The outpost’s border guards in front of the Б-200 searchlight.

Source: https://forum.pogranichnik.ru

The outpost’s border guards beside the radar station at the technical observation post (TOP) situated on Pakulaid.

Source: https://forum.pogranichnik.ru

THE OUTPOST AS A COMPLEX OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

This particular base is a classic example of a Soviet border guard complex of the early post-World WarⅡ period.

The main building’s elegant wooden porch with pillars is an excellent example of the Socialist Classicist architectural style of the 1950s. Architectural features of some buildings were made in the same style, for instance the profiled entrance doors, stylised edges of the rafters, etc. Such elements were subsequently condemned as “excesses” and excluded from mass-produced uniform housing of functionality and simplicity-orientated Soviet Modernism. This outpost has one of the tallest watchtowers of its kind. It has 6 intermediate platforms and is about 5 metres taller than the standard 15 metres tall towers with 4 platforms. The total height is about 22 metres.

The outpost contains many great examples of landscape design, which formed an integral part of Soviet border guard complexes. There are many concrete paths with birch, spruce, and larch alleys. In contrast with most of the other outposts, the sports ground is located opposite the main building, at the site’s heart.

This ground was also very large due to incorporating a volleyball court and a sports equipment area.

There are three rows of planted larches in a U-shape around the sports ground.

The front porch of the main building, the year 1987.

Source: http://pogran-zastava.ru Grebenkin Vladimir.

Border guards in front of the main building’s porch, the year 1989, 1990 or 1991.

Source: http://pogran-zastava.ru Roman Stratichuk.

Border guards on the main building’s porch, the year 1991.

Source: https://forum.pogranichnik.ru

A profiled entrance door to one of the flats of the three-flat officer house. Entrance doors to all the flats are suitable for restoration.

Photo: Jüri Pärn, 2015.

Old-fashioned edges of the rafters of the storage house. The old part of the barracks, three-flat officer house, and guest house (Leonov house) have rafters of the same kind.

Photo: Jüri Pärn, 2015.

The watchtower, the year 1989, 1990 or 1991.

Source: https://forum.pogranichnik.ru

A game of volleyball on the sports ground, a row of larches behind.

Source: http://pogran-zastava.ru Grebenkin Vladimir.

An exercise on the sports ground’s pull-up bar, the volleyball court and a row of larches behind.

Source: https://forum.pogranichnik.ru

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